May 2018: Part 4 of The Lesser Sunda Islands trip/Dyes and processes for ikat.

June 21, 2018

This blog continues a report from my recent textile research trip to the Lesser Sunda Islands hosted by Sea Trek.

The technical aspects of textile production: common dyes, ikat preparation.

Dyes: Indigo and morinda

These are the two dyes that we saw consistently through the trip. Localised dyes have already been covered; in particular those wonderful colours found at Uma Pura on Ternate Island.

Let me say first up that this section was the most complex to sort through from my field notes. We saw dyeing at many locations. I will give an overview and then note any variations.

There are no exact measurements used. The dyers put in an amount according to their experience- a bit like a cook who knows how much of an ingredient is required. Sometimes it was also difficult to interpret the identity of a tree or plant. And perhaps, it might be handy to remember that perhaps like any chemist safe guarding a recipe and the edge to their livelihood, there is a secret ingredient that we are never told about. We’ve all known cooks that don’t share the total recipe.

This was our first experience of a dye demonstration in Flores. Having the materials and plants in a nearby garden labelled was very helpful. However it was the only place where this was done. For any of the unknown ingredients we had to rely on our guides ( Anastasia and Narto) who also may have had to interpret the word before identifying or spelling.

It should also be acknowledged that the dye processes are usually speeded up for a demonstration. Often each stage requires several days for each step and a number of days for drying in between.

These are the recipes as recorded. I make an effort to keep an open mind and record what I actually see and not what perhaps I would expect to see based on past experiences.

Reds are obtained from Morinda. These are the 3 basic ingredients but there were variations with additional material being added to both stages.

Stage 1: The first step is referred to as “oiling”. This makes the cotton fibre receptive to the dye. Candlenut is the main ingredient.

In Savu, where the soil is limestone, there is no candlenut growing.  The nuts of the Nita tree are used in a similar way. Sometimes additional ingredients are added. In reality the oiling may take up to a week with the yarn dried in the sun for up to 3 days before dying.  The yarn will be used dry for the dying process. In fact at no stage did we see wet yarn being used for any dye process.

Additional information:

At Bolok (West Timor) the bark and some leaves (perhaps) of the “delas/deras” tree was added to the candlenut. Delas is a local coastal tree. I couldn’t find its botanical name.

At Ledetadu (Savu), we were told that ash (from nitas), fresh nitas, garak,lonton flowers, water, turmeric and para leaves were pounded together.  This oil water was left for a week before adding the yarn. Then it was left for 3 nights in the liquid and left 7-8 months to dry before being used for dying.

Stage 2:

The morinda comes from the outer bark of the root. In Ndona (Flores) we were told that the oldest trees and the smallest roots provide the best colour while there is little difference in the colour according to the season. See also the morinda  both as sticks and shredded in the first image.

The morinda is shredded to make it fibrous. Water is added. (image from Bolok, West Timor) Before dyeing, the morinda matter is removed, leaving only liquid. Morinda on its own will not dye cotton. It must have something that makes the dye “stick” to the yarn or else it will wash out.

This other ingredient is loba (local name). It acts as a mordant or dye fixer. Loba is from a Symplocos tree and is known for its high level of aluminium. In some villages the men go into the hills and harvest it. Other villages that don’t have access to local loba, trade it. We saw bundles that had been bought in the market. It looked like a bundle of sticks and bark.

In West Timor to Sumba, it may be bought as a powder (blog 3 image) or nita nuts used instead. This tree is also high in aluminium. For western dyers we would use alum as a replacement.

The loba may be pounded with the morinda (Ndona). In Bolok, it was added as a liquid to a morinda dye bath. We saw the morinda change colour as the loba was added. The more added, the deeper the red.

Ikat warp and yarn in a morinda bath. (Bolok)

Additional information.

The morinda bark is removed and the yarn immersed. The process may be repeated up to 8 or more times to get a good colour. (Ndona)

At Bolok, nitas are burnt, ground and the water strained and then added to the symplocos powder. This increases the alkalinity of the symplocos (loba).

It is worth noting that the dyed yarn may be left 7-8 months before weaving to gain optimum dye result.

Blue from Indigo: Fresh leaf process

From Flores to Savu we saw cotton being dyed with fresh leaves. This indicates that indigo is readily available in these areas.

The basic process is: the leaves are soaked overnight and removed. Lime is then sprinkled on top and the bath is vigorously beaten. It was then used. In this image you can see the indigo leaves, the next step of frothing and then indigo ready to be used. (Savu)

 

In Bolok, lime powder was sieved into the indigo.

In this series of images watch how the indigo changes colour as it was aerated.

Additional information:

In Bolok we were told that the yarn was put in the dye bath and left for a week. If you wanted a darker colour the whole process was repeated.

In Ledetadu it was quite a complicated recipe for the soaking of the leaves. As well as the indigo leaves, “raru”, betel nut and its flower were used with ash water. This mix was soaked for 8 hours.

Blue from Indigo: Using indigo paste/cake.

Raijua and Sumba use an indigo cake recipe. I understand the climate means that the indigo plant is subject to drought on these limestone islands and so to achieve access to indigo for dyeing the indigo is processed into a form that will keep.

This is the process seen in Sumba at Freddy’s studio: It was identified that hands must be clean and free of soap, creams etc. The indigo leaves are soaked for 12 hrs. A rock is put on top to make the leaves stay under the level of the water. The leaves are removed. This is the size of the vessel used for soaking the indigo. I wonder if it is also referred to as a jar in the process described below for Raijua. Note the lid for covering the jar and rock for weighing down the leaves in the background.

It is then mixed with lime and left for a day. That sinks the indigo to the bottom. The top liquid is removed till there is about 1.5 litres of “sludge”. The indigo liquid is put in a bag and hung to dry for 2 days.

To use the indigo, the paste is dissolved in ash water and an extra unidentified (secret) ingredient from a tree root was added. The dye must be used in 1 -2 days or else it will rot. Multiple dips are required for a deep blue. I have recorded that 500g of indigo paste = 4 times dipping of 500g of yarn. This time of year (May), the quality of an indigo is poor as it is sensitive to heat variations. Freddy’s dye master shows us the paste/cake.

This is the process as told at Ledeunu (Raijua). Indigo cake is made over a three month period. This would correlate to when optimum amounts of indigo can be obtained from the plants.

Indigo leaves (packed in), lime powder and salt water are put in a “jar” and left for a week. The material is then squeezed and removed from the jar. It is then put in basket and the water drips out. This process takes 3 days. Here’s the resulting cake.

 

To use the indigo cake is dissolved in ash water. Nitas are burnt to obtain the ash water. It “lives” for 3 weeks. The quantities that we were given for dyeing was 10 cakes = 1 sarong for 40 dips. Allow to dry between each dip. This is a very dark blue. I didn’t see the yarn go in but I presume it’s had several dips. I didn’t hear how long for each dip or how many or any other details. I just saw them pull this out.

 

Here’s some other interesting observations.

A plastic bag is used to exclude dye from an unwanted area. (Ndona)

 

This bundle consists of several warps all dyed at the same time. They are separate. (Kelompok Kapo Kale)

This warp is partly unwound. Maybe it will be having a second colour applied. However I understand that indigo is usually but not always the last colour. Maybe it will be a 2 tone indigo warp. (Freddy’s studio). How do you identify which bundle to undo if a second process is required? Freddy told us that different types of knots are used for identification.

I was shown that this small section of ikat will be one of the stripes used in a warp to achieve this sarong. (Lamalera, Lembata)

Ikat preparation for dying

As this is often a step before dying, I will cover this topic on this blog.

Ikat here is all done in the warp. So first step is to wind your warp. The warp will be the length required for weaving an item on a circular warp on a back strap loom. A frame is used. The length of the frame will therefor equal half the required length. In the case of a tubular skirt for instance it will be the distance required for the width of the skirt divided by two.

Mostly we saw the warp being wound in a continuous circle for the required number of threads. Usually two people work together. It makes it efficient to reach both sides. Strings were added during the winding process. This will be a means of keeping threads in order for creating heddles for weaving when it is put back on the loom and to keep the sequence in binding for ikat. (Ledetadu, Savu))

In Kelompok Kapo Kale each section of warp was tied in groups at regular intervals. I suspect that this will aid in the design not shifting.

Here’s a close up of the finished warp just prior to binding. Note the strings to keep everything in sequence. Each group of threads has the potential to be wrapped singly as they are clearly identifiable.

This warp is then wrapped for the required design. It is amazing to me how the designs are often just memorised and reference isn’t made to something to do the wrapping. The wrapped areas will be where the dye will not penetrate. The binding at the bottom has secured a straight line and stabilised the warp to prevent slippage. (Ndona)

It is worth noting that the bound design will weave as a mirror image on each side. The blue string was put in during winding the warp. It can easily be seen how it has been used to identify bundles for binding. (Ndona)

Here’s an interesting way to keep everything secure. A band of plain weave has been done by hand. There’ll be nothing getting out of sequence here. I only saw this in Lamalera.

Wrapping is done using this palm leaf. The long leaves are stripped into narrow lengths. (Nggela, Flores)

 

In some areas we did see plastic being used. (Savu)

According to Freddy (Sumba), the palm leaf is better for binding than plastic. It is stronger and plastic breaks when multiple dips are carried out over a long period of time.

The actual process of weaving with ikat warps will be covered in the next blog along with other forms and aspects of weaving.

Advertisements

May 2018: Part 3 of The Lesser Sunda Islands trip/ The Limestone Islands.

June 20, 2018

This post follows on from the previous one. It is a record of my experiences on a textile research trip to the Lesser Sunda Islands hosted by Sea Trek.

From Lembata Island we head south across the Sunda Straight to West Timor. (see map from Part 1). From there we’ll be heading west to create a loop that will eventually take us back to Flores.

The landscape changes. The mountains are less steep. No more volcanoes to be seen. Accessibility to plant materials for dyeing appears to be impacted.

I had been to West Timor in 2007- that’s 11 years ago. I wondered what Sue and David Richardson had planned for us to visit and whether I’d see any change.

We landed in Kupang and traveled in this bus.

We visited the Bolok weaving group and saw an extensive dye demonstration. Here an essential ingredient in morinda production, symplocos can’t be grown and candlenut may not be accessible. The conditions just aren’t right for the symplosos so they have to buy it in. In this case in a powdered form. Candlenut may be replaced by nita nut. More to follow in the technical notes in another blog,

We also visited the Museum of Nusa Tenggara Timor with some great displays of textiles.

Then it was onto Baun (Kelompok Kai Ne’e)  and then Barat . Our destination was to an audience with the King and Queen of Amarasi in their Royal Pavillion. The king and queen are in the background while the children perform an opening ceremony.

After the reception we were taken to the complex where we saw textiles and a demonstration of papermaking. I had been here before.  My impression is that it was now a much more active and viable community. It seemed much more prosperous than what I remembered.

This is the royal motif being woven, interspersed with some float work stripes. Note that the additional design element is being picked up as it is being woven.

At the nearby village of Barat we saw yarn skeins of yarn in an extensive colour way. This is just one section of line.

There were also a variety of textile techniques.

There was ikat with lots of morinda, though there was some pale indigo too. The designs were bold. Obviously the design is popular or they have an outlet requiring textiles of the same design. It had a commercial feel.

 

There was also some warp float work done on alternating coloured warp threads. On one side there were warp floats while on the back there were weft floats. Note the appearance of uncut circular warps. From my previous trip, I knew that this was a way of identifying desirable new textiles. There were other designs but it is interesting to note that the design while woven individually is the same.

The patterning was very familiar and it stirred memories of other great textiles and interesting techniques I’d seen in 2007. Maybe I need to come back again. It was only a fleeting one day visit.

We sailed west to Sawu or with an alternate spelling: Savu. Here we visited Ledatadu and Namata. Here was another demonstration and with a couple of noteworthy aspects. Here they were removing the seeds from cotton not with a gin but rather by rolling the fibre on a piece of wood with a round stick.

Plied cotton in 2 colours is used as an extra design element in a stripe.

Some areas of bound ikat were being hand painted. This enables isolated areas of motif being dyed as opposed to whole areas being bound and redyed in the required dyebath. The process is repeated at least 4 times with drying time required between each application.

The motifs in the textiles to have an elegance and to be quite refined.

 

These children in their ikats are just too good not to share.

As well as warp ikat there was some textiles using float work (warp floats on the front and weft on the back)

The village of Namata provided us with a dance performance. It was a chance to check out the textiles.

And of course there was another opportunity to buy. There was evidence of more chemical dyes used for the ikat. This piece has a more contemporary feel.

On Raijua Island we visited two textile villages: Uoja Dima and Namo. It was the second village that proved the most interesting.

There was another indigo demonstration. Until now we had seen only indigo being used from fresh leaves. We were told that because of the “extended drought” indigo was being converted into indigo paste. There will be more on this actual process in a later blog. I suspect perhaps that it is an effect of living on the “limestone islands” with what I understand is their lower rainfall. It seems a well-entrenched process.

Cotton is spun using the drop spindle in a different manner: “upside down”.

The textile motifs here remind me very much of damask patterns from Europe.

There is also a strong Dutch influence. Note the crowns and the KN which stands for Koningsland der Nederlands or Kingdom of the Netherlands

We also saw these solid indigo dyed cloths with tie dye patterning. We were told that these are often worn for funerals and other important ceremonies.

Our last island was Sumba. These textiles were one of the reasons I’d joined this trip. They didn’t disappoint. We visited the villages of Uma Bara (King of Pau), Pau and Rindi, Waingapu as well as the studio: Tenun Ikat Sumba at Prailiu. Freddy, the owner acted as our guide for the time on Sumba.

Here’s some background to the social hierarchy. Sumba has “slaves”. They can never move up the social ladder. They can never own land. The children will also be “slaves”. However if they weave and sell textiles they do get the money. Some textiles are sold as being done by royalty. This may mean that they are produced by the “slaves” of that royal. The word “slave” didn’t seem to imply that they were abused but rather describes a position in society.

The importance of textiles in that community was confirmed. We saw a burial tombs for royalty. There was often a weaver carved into the stone as well as other auspicious objects.

When a royal person dies, the body is wrapped in a foetal position and over time till an auspicious date for the burial textiles will be added. This princess has been covered with 75 textiles in 6 months. The burial we were told will probably be in September at which time there will have been many more textiles added. Apparently the best two textiles will be next to the body and on the outside. A slave always sits with the body.

We saw demonstrations of dyeing at Freddy’s studio. I’ll note now that indigo paste was also used, however actual technical details will come later.

There are two main textile techniques: ikat and weaving with supplementary warps. They may be on their own or combined. The actual technique of weaving with the supplementary warps will be covered later. These are the textiles. The motifs are often strong and bold.

I love the large scale motifs found on the ikat. Here are a couple of examples.

 

 

Just blue but look at the complexity and detail with shades of blue.

This one is just a bit extreme though it did make me smile.

Supplementary warp fabrics are different on both sides. The front imagery is definite with the back having the negative design but with long floats being tied down at regular intervals. The back can just be seen on the underneath fabric. This image also shows the stored pattern behind the heddles on the left. The weaving edge is not shown. As the fabric is woven, the supplementary warp is not used at the same rate as the background fabric. To take up the slack and to control tension, it is wound onto extra sticks. This is the roll of sticks on top of the loom. The full process will be shown in a later blog. The colour showing behind the heddles is not a dyed warp but rather the background warp showing through.

 

 

 

A fuller look at the two sides of the fabric. The wrong side looks as though it has lines in the design.

 

 

Supplementary warp on a striped warp woven beside ikat for a woman’s tube skirt. The top fabric is woven separately and joined.

After weaving, the supplementary warp fabric may be hand coloured.

 

Lastly, here’s an interesting fringe treatment. A weaver sits with a small circular warp and the fringe of a completed weaving is woven as the weft. Here’s a completed fabric. The warp of the finished narrow weaving is just cut. The remaining original fringe is then plied.

The next blog covers all those technical details I’ve been promising.


May 2018: Part 2 of The Lesser Sunda Islands trip/ The Volcanic Islands/Andora, Lembata, Ternate, Alor, Pantar

June 20, 2018

This blog continues my experiences of the textile research trip to the Lesser Sunda Islands by Sea Trek. We sail east from Floes. There’s a map on the previous post.

At Bama on Adonara Island we saw more ikat dyed indigo and morinda. This ikat was decorated with sea shells. The shells are placed in the eye of a coconut and the top sliced off before being stitched onto the cloth.

 

An overview of textiles produced.The ikat stripes are very fine.

On Lembata we visited Mawa and Dikesara* (I had this noted as Lowelain). Here was a case of how living in a actively volcanic region influences life. At Mawa village, there is no drinking water as it is very high in sulphur. Water is imported. Imported water is also used for dyeing though we told that the local water gives yellow on yarn. The dye pots used come from another village. They are bartered for corn, textiles and cocoa. Perhaps the pots are also full when they arrive. We also saw more broken threads in weaving. Is this a case of seeing less experienced weavers or weaving with no sizing to help strengthen the handspun yarn or does the atmosphere or water if it has been used create weaker threads? There were some very beautiful warp striped fabrics here. Dikesara had similar textiles. I think that it was here that when they changed the water pipes, the dye colours also changed.

The colours are more “earthy”.

These are all those broken warp threads I referred to.

What a delightful way to go shopping. Yes that’s the sea in the background.

A more detailed look at stripes and combinations of ikat patterning in one textile.

What a colour feast awaited us at Uma Pura on Ternate Island. Up to now we’d seen predominantly morinda and indigo with an odd spot of other colour, but here was a magnificent array of colour. All were natural dyes, some obtained by plant matter with others from the sea.

Yellow is obtained from turmeric and lime fruit. Orange is the yellow dye bath + lime powder (used for indigo). Both are hot processes. (orange above)

Another group dyed yellow from turmeric, milk weed leaves and candlenut.

 

Pink from the bark of the hong tree. It has very hot water poured over it 5 – 6 times to get the deepest colour. Bone (front) from sea weed or sea grass.

Rose brown comes from the sea hare. The sea hare is shown at the back and yarn is being dyed in the dish at the front. You may also see it in the image above.

 

This orange/brown from a sea urchin.

 

Beige from the castor plant leaves.

Dark green from the Indian Almond tree + indigo. Mustard is from the jack fruit bark. Blue is of course indigo. Black is from indigo + lime. Dark brown from morinda and candlenut.

Bright green is from the Indian almond tree. Here’s a comparison of the two greens.

This deep purple came from the sea sponge. The sponge is beside the yarn.

Here’s a couple of interesting additional information on dyeing. Men must not be involved in dyeing with indigo. It will affect their fertility. Dyeing must be done during daylight hours. The dye baths must be taken in at night or “the moonlight will change colour”.

There were 5 weaving groups represented here with about 20 members in each group. Lines of interesting textiles with various colours and imagery were stretched around an oval. The imagery was also reflective of life by the sea with various sea creatures: whales, sting rays, fish, crabs, turtle though there were other more “usual” styles of imagery too.

The Kalabahi Museum was the highlight of our visit to Alor Island. The museum had a wonderful collection of textiles all displayed in glass cabinets though the staff were more than willing to open these doors for us.

On our arrival at Tama (Tamakh*) on Pantar Island, everyone was presented with a scarf; all different. Usually it is just the representatives of the group who receive one if at all. I am delighted with mine, not because it is a wonderful piece of craftsmanship but because it is a true weavers delight. Here is a scarf that obviously combines a whole lot of leftovers: hand spun (yellow) and commercial cotton, natural and synthetic dyes all overlaid with a bit of patterning. It’s something that I might do to use up all those odd ends. The pattern is a result of creating warp floats (weft on the back) on alternately coloured warp threads. The locals trade textiles as there is none made in the village.

Lamalera on Lembata Island is a whaling village where whaling is done from small outriggers. Another aspect of textiles in daily life is shown here. The sail is hand woven.

However there are also textiles produced here. Naturally coloured cotton is grown and spun.

 

This is the first time that I saw plying of cotton being done. It is used as a decorative stripe in woven fabrics. One ply is natural white cotton, the other is a naturally coloured or dyed cotton. Note the end of the spindle is a whale bone.

Whales and boats did feature in some of their textiles. We’re back to a more limited colour way. The dye demonstration showed red (morinda), blue (indigo) , yellow (turmeric) and green being produced.

Place names updated by Sue. Thanks Sue. *

The next stop: The limestone islands of the Lesser Sunda group.


May 2018: Part 1 of The Lesser Sunda Islands trip/ The Volcanic Islands/Flores

June 20, 2018

In May 2018, I went on a textile tour to the Lesser Sunda Islands, organised by Sea Trek with Sue and David Richardson (UK) as textile experts.

To put it all in perspective, here’s a map of Indonesia with the area to be visited identified.

Overview

There was a 3 day pre-tour land based tour that started in Ende, Flores. We then crossed the country to Maumere, visiting Ndora, Kelompok and Nggela villages. For those who wished this could be taken independently or omitted. This was followed by a 13 day cruise around Flores, Lembata (formerly known as Lomblen), Alor, Pantar, West Timor, Savu, Raijua, Sumba before returning to Flores.

This map, supplied by Sea Trek shows where we went.

I had long wanted to explore Flores and Sumba in particular as some of my friends had already been there. I had seen the textiles that they had acquired and had heard their stories and I was fascinated. I hoped to see some similar as well as researching how they were made. In addition it was an ideal way to get an overview of textile production on the smaller islands. In all reality visiting these would be unlikely otherwise. In essence, I thought that this trip would be an ideal opportunity to gain an overview of textile production in this area. It would also inform me of any area which I would like to revisit to do more in depth research. And I’d get to revisit West Timor which I had thoroughly enjoyed in 2007.

Sue and David are both avid collectors with a passion for ethnic textiles and in particular traditional cloth, dyed only with natural dyes and lean towards museum quality pieces. Each night of the cruise Sue or David would give a comprehensive lecture. The lecture, on the regency to be visited, would cover such textbook topics as ethnography – cultural linages (matrilineal, patrilineal), marriage laws and settlements, language; European history in particular, geography and examples of textiles found in collections including their own extensive one. Included were handouts with comprehensive bibliographies. I’m sorry to say that some nights I did find it hard to concentrate (as did many) especially after a day out and about and a relaxing drink in hand. The handouts will be helpful if I wish to research any theoretical aspects at a later date. However they do know their stuff and their years of travelling around this area have certainly enabled them to put together a comprehensive trip. Thanks Sue for the updated place names.*

In addition Sea Trek provided two guides, Anastasia and Narto. They were wonderful: professional, friendly, extremely helpful and obliging. A tour can really be enhanced by the local guides and they certainly filled that category. I’ll also mention the wonderful staff on the boat. It was a truly wonderful experience because of their friendliness, care and willingness to go out of their way and help. And the boat, Ombak Putih – what a truly wonderful way to get around the islands. Sea Trek run other cruises. I’d highly recommend the experience. www.seatrekbali.com .

 

There were 14 on this tour. It was a great group to get to know. Everyone was widely travelled and all with interesting stories.

To get to shore we were taken by these zodiacs.

I will divide this blog into two main sections: one covering the volcanic islands, and the other; the limestone ones. Yes, there are many active volcanoes in this area. Some were even “smoking”. They are all on the northern side of the Savu Sea. The other islands on the southern side are limestone. This is late afternoon cruising with a volcano in the background.

Before starting though, I’ll do an overview of traditional dress. Usually when we visited a village, we were given a welcome event with everyone dressing for the occasion. I guess after all here is their opportunity to show off to those foreigners and perhaps encourage income. This is just one of our many welcomes.

 

At Dokar  (Umauta), Flores, our two representatives, Irene and Phil were taken and dressed for the occasion. This picture will illustrate the requirement of traditional dress for both men (a sarong and shoulder cloth) and women (a tubular sarong). The shirt for a woman may be made from hand woven fabric but is usually a commercial blouse.

 

At the villages we did see demonstrations of the steps from cotton fibre through to weaving. In fact we were to see this a number of times both on the volcanic and limestone islands. While they demonstrated spinning, it did not necessarily mean that they only used homespun. Here’s a pretty typical presentation that we saw throughout the trip; a collection from several places.

Cotton being ginned using an often beautifully decorated wooded hand gin. (Mawa Village)

Cotton is fluffed using a bow. This is a preparatory step to facilitate spinning. (Kelompok Kapo Kale*)

 

Spinning is carried out on a drop spindle. The thread that is produced is fine and even. It is very labour intensive, Commercially spun cotton is also being used. Sometimes rayon was also used. It dyes as well as cotton. In the market place trust the feel of the fabric to tell you the fibre whether it is hand spun or commercial cotton or a much more drape-able rayon.

Cotton being spun. (Mawa village)

After spinning it is wound into a skein or ball. (Mawa village)

 

Dyeing is carried out on either a skein for the weft or solid colour warp, or on a wound and bound warp for ikat. More will be covered on these steps in a later blog.

We’d see warps being prepared and dyeing demonstration. In this area, the typical colour was orange/red from morinda and blue from indigo. In fact, the orange/red was by far the most predominant colour that we saw. (Ndona)

The results of dyeing in morinda on an ikat warp. (Ndona )

 

We’d see many versions of warps being put on a loom. This is one in Kelompok Kapo Kale. The warps are circular and need to be cut off the loom when weaving is finished. There will be just a small distance left unwoven.

 

And warp faced fabrics woven on a back strap loom. Back strap looms were only used in this area. This image shows both a complicated combination of different warps being prepared and a woman weaving. (Bama)

 

Much more detail will be provided on winding the warps, binding for ikat, putting the warps on a loom and weaving in a later blog. There’s way too much information for here. This is just an overview.

The volcanic Islands: Part 1 Flores

Here’s an overview of what we saw and experienced.

Flores

We arrived in Ende and drove across to Maumere  staying in the Kelimutu Echo Lodge for two nights. This gave us the opportunity to visit 3 weaving villages at Ndona, Kelompok Kapo Kale and Nggela.

Travelling by road is challenging as they are not smooth or straight. However it does give you the opportunity to look for looms or warps drying that may indicate the presence of weaving. I do like trying to get that glimpse into daily life as we travelled along these roads.

Weaving is done in the coastal villages. In the mountains at Saga, we were told that it is bad luck to weave. They acquire textiles by barter.

Here is a typical textiles from this region.(Kelompok) Some of the images above are also from this area and show cloth.

This market gives an idea of what was both on sale and what was worn. The dyes used here are synthetic but the colour aesthetics is typical: predominantly red/orange with some blue.

And then it was time to board the boat. From Maumere we sailed to another village in Flores, Umauta. What was very interesting here was that we saw several forms of weaving. Cotton is used (handspun and commercial) with natural dyes (mainly morinda and indigo). There was ikat; check out the skirts too.

 

 

 

There were lots of interesting stripes.

And fabrics that had supplementary weft patterning.

 

Here’s a very interesting technique. I had never seen a reed being used on a back strap loom. This simple technology resulted in a more open fabric. It is, when questioned, a traditional technique. As nowhere else was doing this, here is some information on this specialised technique.

The trick is: how to put on a warp that is circular, that will be woven on a back strap loom AND that is threaded through a reed.

A close up of the reed and a stand to stabilize it for threading. The spacing tells you how fine the fabric will be. Two threads go through each space or dent.

Winding the warp, creating heddles on one layer on every second warp thread and putting through the reed.

Here’s a diagram that may explain it.

This woman is weaving with a reed and with supplementary weft patterning. Note all the sticks that have pattern stored. (perhaps from another village in this area)

This movie shows the basic process of weaving with a reed on a backstrap loom.


May 2018 Bali

June 5, 2018

I have just come back from a wonderful trip to the Lesser Sunda Islands and Bali in Indonesia. This blog will be the start of a series that I’ll post this month that covers this trip. I’ll start at the last 3 days in Bali and then go back to the start. Why? Because there’s a lot of information to sort through and there’s much less on these last few days. Bettes, Larry, Libby and I had decided to culminate our trip with a few days here: a chance for 4 friends to spend time together before going our separate ways.

I had carried out a lot of research on places to see weaving but a festival conspired against this.

Galungan according to a Google search (https://www.balitravelhub.com/events/galungan/) is one of the most important Balinese festivals, is the culmination of celebrations held in honour of the creator and ancestral spirits. At the core of the festival is the celebration of good and the overcoming of evil; the victory of Dharma and the defeat of Adharma. The festival usually runs for around 10 days at various locations around Bali. Because the Balinese calendar does not align with the western one, it is held at a different time each year. We were unaware that we’d experience the first 3 days of it. However it proved to be a not to be missed experience.

These street banners or perjor were everywhere. Some were much more intricate than others. These are made only by men. At the end of the festival, we’ve been told that they will be ceremonially burnt. We were also told that these were for the rice goddess.

However our visit did mean that many of the places of interest on my list were closed or operating on a basic level. Weaving places may be open but there would be no weavers. These galleries were open and were well worth a visit.

Kuluk Gallery, Ubud. Email kulukgallery@gmail.com. This gallery has amazing antiques including textiles. Donna Lunn has a wealth of information.

Threads of Life. It’s well known on the textile tourist map in Ubud. Here’s the place to see high quality textiles woven in traditional techniques and with natural dyes. It’s also a place where you can research what is available from various parts of Indonesia. http://threadsoflife.com

Neka Art Museum, Ubud. The focus is listed as fine art. There is also an impressive collection of superbly decorated keris, or ceremonial dagger. We saw these daggers being used in a ceremony. www.museumneka.com.

We stumbled across Manik Bali, Ubud and found beautiful cotton yardage both plain and ikat. It’s great to see and feel beautiful hand woven (even if it is commercial) fabrics. There’s even an opportunity to have garments custom made. www.manikbaliikat.com.

Our driver took us to a batik workshop and retail outlet because it was one of the few places open on an afternoon where we had little success with finding weaving. Batik is common in Bali though it is not a traditional skill. The results are very touristy. However the process was being demonstrated.

Here the designs are drawn in bees’ wax using a tjanting, a tool that controls melted wax flow and draws a fine line. The wax will stop dye penetration.

Areas will then be coloured in using dye. Sometimes areas will be covered with another application of wax to resist the next application of dye. Finally the wax will be removed by boiling.

 

We did drive through beautiful picture book scenery to Sideman.

Sideman is a well-known destination for endek (weft shibori) and songket (brocade). There are several weaving outlets there. We visited Pertenunan Pelangi. Unfortunately there were no weavers, though there was a man wrapping ikat at a most amazing pace. Binding the warp stops dye penetration. Each colour binding indicates a different colour.

We saw where dyeing was carried out and Eka, our driver who is very familiar with this destination showed us how two of these wooden tools were used to apply the dye and work it into the tied spaces after the background colour was applied. They are dipped in the dye and the bound sections rolled between two of these wooden paddles.

Here’s a close up view of the inside surface of the tool. These ridges force open the warp and pushes in the dye.

This is the space with all the looms. They were all 2 shaft for the weaving of endek which only requires plain weave.

A couple of endek fabrics. These have a very contemporary feel. I found the stripped fabric in combination with endek quite interesting.

After Sideman we drove towards Tenganan, the village renowned for double ikat. We had all heard that it was questionable as an experience as it is very touristy. However it is double ikat so we thought that we should go.

Our decision proved to be a highlight of our stay in Bali. We encountered a street parade close to our destination. It was part of the Galungan ritual. We walked behind it as it progressed up the street watching each stage as it stopped for significant ceremonies. As well as being an extraordinary experience, we were excited to see the sacred double ikat cloths being used. Here is some of what we experienced.

The procession up the street.

 

A close up view of the double ikat being used as sacred cloth underneath caskets which we were told carried relics. We were very excited to see fabric being used with such significance.

Images of the ceremony at the culmination of the procession with the blessing of the food. Women waited behind the main ceremony to collect the blessed food.

 

It was pretty special to see this aspect of textiles: cloth used in ritual. Note also that for this celebration, the men are all dressed in white while the women are dressed beautifully in formal dress.

Here’s a closer look at a similar Tenganan double ikat from my collection from 2007. Note the uncut circular warp. This is used to indicate that it is a new cloth and one that could be used in rituals (festivals, births, deaths etc).

This detail shows a close up look at where the weft and warp intersect. The warp and weft are wound separately, tied and then dyed. There are two dye baths required in this example. Dyes are indigo and morinda. The warp is then put on the loom and woven with the dyed weft. It takes great skill to achieve both coinciding at the same place to achieve imagery. You can see feathering at the motif edges where some dyed/undyed warp or weft extend past the pattern areas.

After the ceremonies were over, we did continued up the hill to Tenganan. It looked as though it was the same village but is apparently it is three all joined together. Yes, it is one of those villages set up to make the most of the tourist trade but we did find several outlets with weaving. We went into one of these shops and saw the double ikat. But we also found some single ikat in cotton including this one which is woven in a similar style. This woman told us that her daughter started weaving double ikat at 12.  That’s wonderful news to hear that there are young women learning this technique and very impressive to those of us who weave that someone this age is doing so.

It appears that weaving and textile production in Bali is done on a very commercial level aimed at production with often a focus on tourism. This was especially noticeable in the contrast to what we had just experienced on our tour prior to Bali. And what an experience that was as you’ll see in Part II of this month’s blog.

Often I don’t make mention of where I stay but in this case it was extraordinary. The accommodation was palatial and very Balinese. The staff extremely friendly and helpful while the surrounding area was tranquil in spite of being relatively accessible to places of interest.  I’d highly recommend it. http://www.alamindahbali.com This is the carving at the top of the entrance to our space.

Thanks go to Bettes and Larry for sharing some of the images used in this blog. (iphones and airdrop makes sharing images very easy)


January 2018 Lace weaves and Leno

February 2, 2018

In January, I hosted Linen and Lace in my studio. This class will be run again in a few weeks’ time. My intention is to run small classes with highly personalised teaching, hence the need to divide it into two. It also gives me an opportunity to play as you’ll see later.

Rochelle and Heather explored all manner of lace weaves (Spot Bronson, Bronson, Swedish, Huck, 3 or 5 ends and one piece that combined several). They demystified structures, investigated finishing techniques and took home a collection of beautifully woven and finished pieces. Here’s some images from the 5 days. Congratulations to both of them. It was a great week!

 

 

They also explored leno with one piece. The left over warp gave me the perfect opportunity to play.  They got to see the benefit of my play so it’s a “win, win” situation. Towards the end of last year I had explored a technique from John Becker’s Pattern and Loom: Chapter 1, Chinese Han monochrome pattern weaves. The next chapter is on gauze weaves and I spied leno from the Han Dynasty. What caught my attention was a drawing showing loops (or doupes) put on a rod that mechanically achieved those twists that characterised leno. I have used a treadle doupe system to achieve leno and while it works a treat, it takes ages to set up. I wondered how efficiently this would work. It also ties in very nicely with my fascination with S. E. Asian textiles as I’d been seeing leno in use there. Here’s an example from my collection from Bhutan with a detailed view.

 

Leno is a different way of creating a lacy effect to “lace weaves” which are loom structured. They are classed as being in the “gauze” family. However they do still fit nicely into the week’s theme.

So I set it up. Here’s some things I had to consider. I was working with linen at a sett of 8 epcm (20epi). The warp was already on the loom however I would need to rethread the reed to do what I wanted to do.  Each twist has to have all multiples in one dent of a reed, and I did want to use a reed. So I went to my collection of reeds and found one that had a spacing of 3 dpcm. That meant that I’d thread the reed with 4 per dent for two dents and then leave one free. A dent by the way for those non weavers is a space in the reed.  I quite liked the look of the spaced warp.

Then I had to construct the loops or doupes for the leno. These loops are between the reed and the shafts. It’s easy enough to create the twist in front of the beater and transfer to behind the reed. I could have constructed these loops in much the same way that I do for heddles on SE Asian looms. However I took the soft option of using old texsolv heddles folded in half. They were a bit bulky but it would save time and let me see how this would work.

These two images show how the loops are formed to create the leno twist.

 

The rod with all those loops on behind the beater.

To weave, it was a relatively simple matter to raise the extra shaft to create those leno twists across the full width of the piece. I did find that it was most effective as the shed wasn’t huge to insert a stick to clear the shed.

The loom I’m using is a countermarche. On this loom there is a lot of movement with the warp threads going up and down. I did find that to weave plain weave a bit of tension on the loop stick allowed for a freer passage of the warp threads. Once you go into the rhythm of just putting a bit of tension while the threads were passing through the “neutral” position at the middle of the treadling movement, weaving progressed easily.

By the way the weft thread is heavier than the warp. I wanted weaving to progress quickly for this experiment. My choice was that heavier white linen thread in my stash: the only one and one that I’d like used up. I’m not sure that it was the best colour choice but it suited my purpose.

Weaving progresses on the loom.

 

After finishing. The first image has light behind to see the leno more clearly.

 

And while I was about it here’s a piece of leno that is manually manipulated using the threading on the same loom. The threads in one dent are twisted with those in the next dent and then offset. One image is just woven while the other is after washing. Note how much the denting space has closed up.

The next class on Linen and Lace is from 19-23rd . There’s still 1 place left. Perhaps my students and I will have time to do some more play with leno.


October 2017: Student work and a review of the Hybrid Loom Project

November 6, 2017

This month I’ll review the latest 5 day class in the studio and the results of the challenge with the hybrid loom.

DSC05025 (400 x 600)

Rochelle returned to continue weaving her throws. She brought back the throw she had woven the previous month for finishing. After laundering, this throw is so soft and cuddly and it has achieved the magic of tracking: a random twill like effect that sometimes appears on plain weave when the twist of the ply and the sett combine.

DSC05026 (600 x 400)

This is one of the best examples of tracking, I’ve seen for a while. It sure does add interest to this cloth.

And then she started another throw.

IMG_2141

And finished it. Here’s another very cuddly alpaca throw.

IMG_2157

 

While Rochelle was weaving her throws, the focus for this 5 day class was on weaving floor rugs.

Sue brought a palette of hand spun alpaca.

DSC05032

She wove stripes on plain weave and explored some weave effects.

IMG_2140

Here the rug is coming off the loom.

IMG_2154

What a great result Sue. It is nearly finished, just half one side of fringing to go.

DSC05035

Marja returned to the studio to weave a rug on a twill threading. She was inspired by some of the effects that could be achieved by sequencing of colours in the weft.

IMG_2135

Here it is coming off the loom. It’s exciting to see how the colours and patterns work together.

IMG_2147

She has totally finished her rug. Congratulations Marja.

DSC05034

I flagged last month that I would review the results of the experimental warp from the hybrid loom: one that has a countermarche action and long eyed heddles in combination with storage systems from S E Asia.

Here are all the techniques that were woven on that one warp with no rethreading of the warp.

DSC05024

To recap: I had put the warp on by pulling it through the vertical storage system. I then threaded the shafts in a straight twill on 6 shafts. This combination allowed me to pick up a pattern to be woven as a supplementary weft on a plain weave ground. By picking up a different set of pattern shafts in a block of 6, I was able to achieve a 6 end damask effect as if I was weaving on a draw loom. That vertical storage system had now become in essence the second set of heddles found on a draw loom. (May blog)

Next I found a technique in Becker’s book and explored that (last month). I picked up the start of that pattern and stored it on the vertical storage and added a horizontal system. That same picked up design was used to weave an isolated motif as a supplementary weft. Not bad for just one warp isn’t it? There are 3 totally different techniques: supplementary weft including brocade on plain weave, damask and the plain weave with twill motif from the Han Dynasty.

The question is posed: which is the more versatile loom? Is it a conventional draw loom or this hybrid loom that is basically a conventional countermarche loom with a Lao/Thai addition? Could I have woven all those techniques on the draw loom?

The answer is of course yes with some forward planning. If I knew I was going to weave these techniques on a draw loom, I would have threaded the back set of shafts (the pattern shafts) two to a heddle. (Normally on a draw loom if I was going to weave a 6 end damask, I would put 6 ends through the one eye.) The front set of shafts would then be threaded in a 6 end straight twill. The effect is the same. However the only difference is the Lao/Thai vertical storage system is always set up 2 to a heddle. The only forward planning I made on my hybrid loom was to choose to use 6 shafts instead of the conventional 2 because I knew I wanted to explore how easily damask could be woven on that system. And because I was limited by 2 threads through the heddles of the vertical storage system, I knew that the satin for the damask needed to be multiples of 2. The rest of my experimentation happened because I saw a technique and had the perfect set up that allowed me to play.

The next question to ask is which can achieve the more complex repeat patterning? If both looms are set up the same: 2 warp threads through either a pattern heddle or through the vertical storage system and an appropriate ground weave, the only limiting factor will be the way that the pattern is achieved. On my draw loom, I am limited by 50 pattern shafts. If I had a single draw system then I could individually pull each row, in essence picking up whatever pairs I wanted for each row. On the Loa/Thai loom, I pick up the pattern and store it. Once stored the pattern rows are used in sequence. The number of pattern rows could be hundreds. In the Lao/Thai system the weaver picks up the design with a stick and transfers the pattern to behind the front ground weave shafts to be stored. The picking up of motif takes time. On a draw loom with an individual pull, the weaver conveniently sits at the front of the loom and pulls cords to select the pattern a row at a time.

Lastly, announcing the 2018 studio class schedule. Full details are coming.

8-12 January (4 places left) and 19-23 February (1 place left) Linen and Lace Learn how to weave trouble free with linen. Explore various lace weave structures. Linen and lace is a beautiful combination. Looms will be set up so you will not need to thread before weaving.

26-30 March (provisional) From a Twill Threading.

30 April- 4 May Beyond the Basics

11-16 June Special

6-10 August Two ties or Summer and Winter